Tikanga, as explained by a paper published on the university of Victoria's website stems from Tika, meaning correct, and the suffix nga meaning the. So it essentially means the established "correct" ways of doing things, that is, pretty much morality, and ethics in terms of Maori culture. The history of Tikanga extends as far back as the Maori culture itself, as every culture is based on the values central to it. Pre-1840 Tikanga values were only known to Maori, but, after the signing of the Treaty of Waitangi that year which acknowledged New Zealand as a bicultural nation, it has come to hold more significance and can be integrated into the daily lives of all New Zealanders. Tikanga is such a wide umbrella, encompassing all other values Maori hold. This is because the protocol of Maori culture is based on the following through of values key to the culture. Some Tikanga values are:
- Whanaungatanga: a sort of family spirit, which includes respecting everybody's right to belong to the community.
- Manaakitanga: The idea of hospitality and kindness, involved with how guests are treated. As stated on Rangitahi Tu Rangatira.org, "It is a measure of people's ability to extend aroha (love)."
- Kaitiakitanga: Is the sense of guardianship. Maori believe it is extremely important to preserve the land in it's beauty, as they feel that the Earth has Mana, is Tapu and Mauri (spiritual power, spiritual restirctions and a life force). This is a key part of Tikanga.
- Kotahitanga: means "oneness" or unity. Kotahitanga is about cooperation and collaboration.
- Rangitiratanga:Rangatiratanga is about being in control of yourself, and being able to make decisions for yourself
- Tuakana/Teina:This refers to the relationship between those who are older and those who are younger.
Besides those listed here, there are many more Tikanga values. More can be found at this website